By Richard G. Hovannisian
Edited via the major historian of the Republic of Armenia, this can be the definitive historical past of a rare state - from its earliest foundations, throughout the Crusades, the resistance to Ottoman and Tsarist rule, the cave in of the self sufficient kingdom, its short re-emergence after international conflict I, its subjugation via the Bolsheviks, and the institution of the hot Republic in 1991. Written through the most important specialists on every one interval in Armenia's background, this ebook is an important contribution to knowing the complexities of Transcaucasia. Armenia is a cradle of civilization located on one of many world's such a lot turbulent crossroads. This quantity examines the query of Armenian origins and lines household and diplomacy, society and tradition throughout the 5 dynastic classes, spanning approximately thousand years. The problem dealing with the Armenian humans was once to take care of as a lot freedom as attainable below the shadow of strong neighbouring empires. The adoption of Christianity had an enduring impression at the process Armenian heritage and tradition. those have been the heroic, vibrant and vicious feudal centuries of Armenia.
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Additional info for The Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times: Volume 2. Foreign Dominion to Statehood: The Fifteenth Century to the Twentieth Century
Considering the terror and destruction of the period, church leaders found it necessary once and for all to adjust themselves to dependency on non-Christian rulers. Furthermore, despite the im mense disruption in authority and revenue, and the decreasing numbers of faithful caused by constant emigration and assimilation to Islam, the church and its leaders reached a modus vivendi on jurisdictional ques tions and somehow survived along with the nation. As already men tioned, the upper clergy even were able to initiate attempts toward the liberation of Armenia.
In the 1620s, however, hostilities broke out again. They ended only in 1639, when the Treaty of Zuhab ARMENIA FROM 1375 TO 1604 21 finally stopped a century and a half of war. The treaty gave the Ottomans Iraq, with Baghdad and Mosul, the Van area, and Armenia up to Kars. Erevan, Shirvan, and Tabriz went to the Safavids. Armenia had been ruined by more than a hundred years of attacks and counterattacks. Foreign travelers testify that Ararat, Alashkert, Bayazit, and the plain of Nakhichevan were deserted.
Most of the facts about the assembly of 1441 comes from the often-cryptic remarks found in the colophon he attached to his History. He reports that 300 bishops, clerics, and dignitaries from various parts of Armenia came to Vagharshapat (Metzopetsi, 1892;Khachikian, 1955, no. 587, pp. ). ) The major candidates were Grigor Jalaliants, who already held a major office in Vagharshapat and was formerly bishop of Artaz; Zakaria, abbot of Havuts Tar monastery; and Catholicos Zakaria of Aghtamar. The catholicos, and probably Tovma himself, thought that the election of Grigor, already a proven leader, would place a respected and qualified person in the position and at the same time put an end to the existence of two catholicosates.
The Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times: Volume 2. Foreign Dominion to Statehood: The Fifteenth Century to the Twentieth Century by Richard G. Hovannisian