Download e-book for iPad: Osprey Men-at-Arms 297 - Russian Army of the Seven Years War by Angus Konstam

By Angus Konstam

ISBN-10: 1855325853

ISBN-13: 9781855325852

Throughout the lengthy and expensive clash often called the good Northern warfare [1700-1721], Peter the good and his newly shaped Russian military, which used to be modelled on western ecu strains, defeated their Swedish opposite numbers, who have been normally considered as being the best troops in Europe. Angus Konstam examines the improvement, apparatus and organization of the Russian military following the loss of life of Peter the good, and describes its emergence from 3 a long time of experimentation and political involvement as an immense army energy through the Seven Years struggle. this primary of 2 volumes covers the Russian infantry, with its better half, Men-at-Arms 298, targeting the cavalry.

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The Great Northern War established Russia as a major force in central Europe and marked the beginning of Sweden’s geopolitical decline. Subsequent Swedish– Russian wars (1741–3 and 1788–90) resulted in minor territorial gains in Finland 16 The Russian Empire 1450–1801 for Russia but were not regionally significant. Russia’s success on the Baltic masks the failures of Peter I’s ambitions in the Black and Caspian Sea theaters. In the midst of the war in 1710, for example, Peter I threatened the Ottoman empire with war if they did not release the wounded Charles XII who was sheltering in Istanbul.

Growing seasons were accordingly short: around St. Petersburg, four months (mid-May to mid-September); near Moscow about five and a half (mid-April to end September); up to six months in the fertile steppe south of Kyiv. By contrast, much of western Europe enjoys eight to nine growing months with the temperate effects of Gulf Stream and Mediterranean. Short growing seasons allowed time for only one crop in the summer. Only a narrow range of hardy grains (oats, rye, barley) and root vegetables could be grown; yields depended upon the quality of the soil, and they tended to be not much better than subsistence level until the empire expanded into the black earth steppe in the late seventeenth and eighteenth century.

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE The Russian empire’s northern latitude and distance from warming oceans make it a cold and inhospitable place (Map 1). Before late seventeenth- and eighteenthcentury expansion into the steppe, most of the empire lay at or above the 50th latitude, above a steppe-forest line that stretches from around Kyiv eastward to the southern Urals and western Siberia. Expansion into the Black Sea steppe took it not farther south than the 45th latitude, whereas Americans will recall that all of the United States minus Alaska is south of the 49th parallel.

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Osprey Men-at-Arms 297 - Russian Army of the Seven Years War (1) by Angus Konstam

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