Download e-book for kindle: Essentials of Dental Radiography and Radiology 3rd Edition by Eric Whaites

By Eric Whaites

ISBN-10: 044307027X

ISBN-13: 9780443070273

ISBN-10: 1417540265

ISBN-13: 9781417540266

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Extra info for Essentials of Dental Radiography and Radiology 3rd Edition

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The more important terms in dosimetry include: • • • • • Radiation-absorbed dose (D) Equivalent dose (H) Effective dose (E) Collective effective dose or Collective dose Dose rate. Radiation-absorbed dose (D) This is a measure of the amount of energy absorbed from the radiation beam per unit mass of tissue. SI unit Gray, (Gy) measured in joules/kg subunit milligray, (mGy) (x 10"3) original unit rad, measured in ergs/g conversion 1 Gray = 100 rads For example, alpha particles (see Ch. 17) penetrate only a few millimetres in tissue, lose all their energy and are totally absorbed, whereas X-rays penetrate much further, lose some of their energy and are only partially absorbed.

5B). Fig. 5A X-ray-producing collision: the incoming electron passes close to the tungsten nucleus and is rapidly slowed down and deflected with the emission of X-ray photons. B X-ray-producing collision: Stage 1 — the incoming electron collides with an inner-shell tungsten electron and displaces it; Stage 2 — outer-shell electrons drop into the inner shells with subsequent emission of X-ray photons. Production, properties and interactions of X-rays X-ray spectra The two X-ray-producing collisions result in the production of two different types of X-ray spectra: • Continuous spectrum • Characteristic spectrum.

Other X-ray generating apparatus The other common X-ray generating equipment encountered in dentistry includes: • Panoramic X-ray machines • Skull units, such as the Craniotome® or Orbix® • Cephalometric skull equipment. The main features and practical components of these machines are outlined in later chapters. Constant-potential rectification Time Fig. 8 Diagrams showing the waveforms and X-ray production graphs resulting from different forms of rectification. 37 38 Essentials of dental radiography and radiology Image receptors The usual image receptor used in dentistry is radiographic film.

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Essentials of Dental Radiography and Radiology 3rd Edition by Eric Whaites


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