By Eric Whaites
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Extra info for Essentials of Dental Radiography and Radiology 3rd Edition
The more important terms in dosimetry include: • • • • • Radiation-absorbed dose (D) Equivalent dose (H) Effective dose (E) Collective effective dose or Collective dose Dose rate. Radiation-absorbed dose (D) This is a measure of the amount of energy absorbed from the radiation beam per unit mass of tissue. SI unit Gray, (Gy) measured in joules/kg subunit milligray, (mGy) (x 10"3) original unit rad, measured in ergs/g conversion 1 Gray = 100 rads For example, alpha particles (see Ch. 17) penetrate only a few millimetres in tissue, lose all their energy and are totally absorbed, whereas X-rays penetrate much further, lose some of their energy and are only partially absorbed.
5B). Fig. 5A X-ray-producing collision: the incoming electron passes close to the tungsten nucleus and is rapidly slowed down and deflected with the emission of X-ray photons. B X-ray-producing collision: Stage 1 — the incoming electron collides with an inner-shell tungsten electron and displaces it; Stage 2 — outer-shell electrons drop into the inner shells with subsequent emission of X-ray photons. Production, properties and interactions of X-rays X-ray spectra The two X-ray-producing collisions result in the production of two different types of X-ray spectra: • Continuous spectrum • Characteristic spectrum.
Other X-ray generating apparatus The other common X-ray generating equipment encountered in dentistry includes: • Panoramic X-ray machines • Skull units, such as the Craniotome® or Orbix® • Cephalometric skull equipment. The main features and practical components of these machines are outlined in later chapters. Constant-potential rectification Time Fig. 8 Diagrams showing the waveforms and X-ray production graphs resulting from different forms of rectification. 37 38 Essentials of dental radiography and radiology Image receptors The usual image receptor used in dentistry is radiographic film.
Essentials of Dental Radiography and Radiology 3rd Edition by Eric Whaites