By Philip Eubanks
This examine via Philip Eubanks demanding situations conventional debts of metaphor and considerably expands theories of "conceptual" metaphor via reading alternate Is warfare because it happens in concrete discourse.
Although scholarly curiosity in metaphor as a classy, linguistic, and cognitive phenomenon has lengthy continued, Eubanks is without doubt one of the first to contemplate metaphor in its sociohistorical position. wondering significant bills of metaphor from Aristotle to the current, Eubanks argues that metaphor is not only motivated via yet truly is constituted through its concrete operation.
Far-reaching in its implications for our figuring out of metaphor, Eubanks's premise allows us to work out metaphor as a sweeping rhetorical entity whilst it debts for the extra localized operations of metaphor of curiosity to linguists, philosophers of language, and cognitive scientists. offering a brand new version of metaphoric functioning, Eubanks reconsiders the main promising account of metaphor thus far, the thought of "conceptual metaphor."
Eubanks makes a speciality of the conceptual metaphor exchange Is War-a metaphor discovered at any place humans talk about enterprise and commerce-to advance his rhetorical version of metaphor. He analyzes alternate Is struggle because it happens in the print information media, on tv dialogue indicates, in educational works, in well known nonfiction and novels, in old financial statement, and in concentration team speak. whereas those examples do exhibit a wealthy type within the makeup of alternate Is conflict, even more than mere style is at stake.
Trade Is conflict is implicated in a longer and rhetorically advanced dialog with different metaphors and literal techniques: alternate is peace, exchange Is a video game, alternate Is Friendship, exchange is a trip, and Markets Are bins. the popularity and research of this constituting dialog furthers a reevaluation concept. What additionally emerges, although, is a beneficial portrait of the discourse of exchange itself, a discourse that relies importantly upon a responsive interchange of metaphors.
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Additional resources for A War of Words in the Discourse of Trade: The Rhetorical Constitution of Metaphor
In editorials, political speeches, television debates and the like, ascriptions are likely to be emphatic. The ascription does not merely characterize another’s views but often promotes a pointed evaluation of that view. In these genres, ascriptions not only amount to a description of another’s view but pointedly contrast with the utterer’s view. Indeed, ascriptions are most evident in moments of disagreement. Nonetheless, it is possible to simultaneously claim and ascribe a metaphor— for instance, when the utterer and target are in emphatic agreement.
For instance, it may actually be a bad idea to eliminate farm subsidies. This makes Gingrich’s metaphor potentially true. In another sense, Gingrich’s expression can be true as a literal statement. Many who discuss economic warfare mean, quite earnestly, that the conduct of international commerce is a tool of warfare no less than the use of armies. What makes Gingrich’s statement primarily metaphoric is not the impossibility of its being literally true, but rather that it implies—comes into contrastive intercourse with—a significant contradictory concept, a concept that is conventionally treated as relatively more literal than Trade Is War: trade is peace.
Richards offers some impressive readings of literary examples and does so within a theory of language that makes it possible to include a broad landscape of speech and thought. Although Richards confines himself to the internal logic of the literary example, he does take into account the thinking of its speaker. In his adroit vivisection of Lord Kames, who objects to Shakespeare’s “steep’d me in poverty to the very lips,” Richards comments, “Let us look at Othello’s whole speech. ’ It comes, as you will recall, when Othello first openly charges Desdemona with unfaithfulness” (104–5).
A War of Words in the Discourse of Trade: The Rhetorical Constitution of Metaphor by Philip Eubanks