By Samuel Merrill III, Bernard Grofman
Professors Merrill and Grofman enhance a unified version that includes voter motivations and assesses its empirical predictions--for either voter selection and candidate strategy--in the USA, Norway, and France. The analyses express blend of proximity, path, discounting, and occasion identity have compatibility with the mildly yet now not tremendous divergent guidelines which are attribute of many two-party and multiparty electorates. All of those motivations are essential to comprehend the linkage among candidate factor positions and voter personal tastes.
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Extra resources for A Unified Theory of Voting: Directional and Proximity Spatial Models
Our analysis, thus, provides an alternative to that of Riker’s work on realignment (Riker, 1962, 1982), which holds that a long period of one-party dominance eventually ends when a majority coalition becomes too difficult to maintain. 16 Introduction is by far the best predictor of the actual locations assumed by parties in the multiparty electorates of Norway and France, which are indicative of many European polities. Thus, empirical fitting provides strong support for a model of voter choice that combines both proximity and directional aspects.
Here, in this section of the book, we will focus on differences in voter utility and in voter choice among the models. 4 – which plots utility as a function of candidate position for a voter in fixed location – the proximity utility curve peaks for a candidate located at the voter position whereas the utility curve for the Rabinowitz–Macdonald (RM) model is unbounded, continuing to increase as the candidate position becomes more extreme (more intense) than that of the voter. The slope of the RM utility curve, furthermore, depends on the intensity of the voter – that of the proximity curve does not.
3 Directional models that provide alternatives to the more usual proximity approach go back at least to Carroll (1972) and Reynolds (1974). Carroll (see also Carroll, 1980; De Soete and Carroll, 1983) provided a utility function for psychological scaling, referring to it as the “vector” or “wandering vector” model and contrasting it with the proximity model – a model he referred to as the “Coombsian unfolding model” after Coombs (l964). De Soete and Carroll (l983) provided 3 As we shall see in Chapter 6, the effects of party ID may also contribute to the ideological dispersal of vote-maximizing parties.
A Unified Theory of Voting: Directional and Proximity Spatial Models by Samuel Merrill III, Bernard Grofman