By Wayne H. Bowen
In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Spain was once a key participant within the army conflagrations that created glossy Europe. From the Napoleonic Wars, in the course of the costume practice session for global struggle II that used to be the Spanish Civil battle, to the bleak fight opposed to terrorism this day, the army background of recent Spain has either formed and mirrored better forces past its borders.
This quantity strains the process Spanish army heritage, essentially through the twentieth century. bankruptcy 1 presents the root for the position of the Spanish military at domestic (the struggle of Independence [Napoleonic War], the Carlist Wars, and pronunciamientos), in a foreign country (Morocco, 1859-60), and as an device for Liberal reforms in Spain. bankruptcy 2 covers the interval following the Spanish-American struggle because the military redirected its concentration to the Spanish Protectorate in northern Morocco. This bankruptcy covers the Rif uprising (1921-27), the dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera (1923-30) and concludes with the tip of the monarchy and the institution of the second Republic in 1931. Chapters three and four current the 2 armies of the Spanish Civil battle, in addition to their dating to the warring factions of Nationalists and Republicans. bankruptcy five appears on the Spanish military in the course of global conflict II at the jap entrance (Russia), in its abroad colonies, in addition to in Spain. De-colonialism is roofed in bankruptcy 6 as Spain, following the lead of the opposite ecu powers, started to shed itself of its African empire. bankruptcy eight charts Spain's integration into the Western protection neighborhood within the Fifties, its club in NATO, and its participation in peacekeeping and humanitarian missions within the Balkans and the center East. bankruptcy nine makes a speciality of Spain's fight opposed to terrorism, either the family Basques of ETA (Fatherland and Liberty) and the more recent clash opposed to al-Qaeda and radical Islamic fundamentalism.
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Extra info for A Military History of Modern Spain: From the Napoleonic Era to the International War on Terror
The loss of these overseas colonies took away the opportunity for active service and therefore deprived the army and navy (which had lost both its Atlantic and its Pacific fleets in the war) of any chance of restoring the loss of prestige and honor which the Army had suffered. It appeared as if all military adventure outside Spain was gone, as well as the opportunities for promotion and battle pay which campaigning could provide. 3 However, what the Army most needed at the time was to reform its supernumerary ranks.
They learned, for instance, to deploy extensive chains of skirmishers to prevent the long, spread-out lines of enemy soldiers from enveloping them. 30 As we will see, the future commander in chief of the Spanish Army in Cuba, Valeriano Weyler, would similarly stress outflanking as a way of defeating guerrillas. Also like in Cuba decades later, disease could be as deadly of a threat to the Spaniards as the Moroccan soldiers. Cholera became a problem early in the campaign, and it would reach epidemic proportions in Tetua´n.
In turn, the Army also represented the greatest threat to the stability and authority of any restoration government. The officer class was disgruntled owing to the fact that now, without wars to fight and/or territories to protect overseas, promotions, based on seniority, would be slow in coming. This bitterness was compounded by a rise in the cost of living which led some mid-grade officers to seek outside employment, when not on duty, in order to afford their uniforms as well as to maintain their economic status.
A Military History of Modern Spain: From the Napoleonic Era to the International War on Terror by Wayne H. Bowen