By Robert Bideleux
A background of jap Europe: situation and alter is a wide-ranging unmarried quantity heritage of the "lands between", the lands that have lain among Germany, Italy, and the Tsarist and Soviet empires. Bideleux and Jeffries learn the issues that experience bedevilled this bothered zone in the course of its imperial previous, the interwar interval, less than fascism, below communism, and because 1989. whereas mostly targeting the trendy period and at the results of ethnic nationalism, fascism and communism, the publication additionally deals unique, amazing and revisionist insurance of: * historical and medieval occasions* the Hussite Revolution, the Renaissance, the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation* the legacies of Byzantium, the Ottoman Empire and the Hapsburg Empire* the increase and decline of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth* the influence of the region's strong Russian and Germanic neighbours* rival techniques of "Central" and "Eastern" Europe* the Twenties land reforms and the Thirties melancholy. offering a thematic old survey and research of the formative approaches of swap that have performed the paramount roles in shaping the advance of the region, A historical past of japanese Europe itself will play a paramount position within the reports of eu historians.
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Additional info for A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change (1998)
The ‘mentality of the besieged fortress’ (Wandycz 1992:8). Before Bohemia, Hungary and Poland fell under the control of alien absolutist empires, multicultural and multi-ethnic ‘political nations’ did indeed begin to emerge in East Central Europe. ‘It was the interruption of statehood…that vitiated the process of nation forming along Western lines. The result was an evolution toward a different concept of nationhood, colored by the romantic outlook, conceived in terms of ethnicity and cultural–linguistic criteria’ (p.
Seen in this perspective, the intensification and extension of serfdom in early modern East Central Europe was not a ‘pre-capitalist’ or ‘feudal’ phenomenon but a specific product and manifestation of emergent capitalism. It was analogous to the coercive ‘cash crop labour systems’ implanted in the Americas, where servile forced labour similarly became a commodity to be bought and sold in economies that were likewise reorientated towards the production of primary commodities for profit and for export to the north-western European core states, which allegedly appropriated most of the ‘surplus value’ generated by the ‘world economy’ as a whole and held the underdeveloped peripheries in subordinate ‘dependent’ roles (Wallerstein 1974a, b).
Ironically, the Polish nobility successfully warded off any ‘absolutist’ ambitions on the part of their own monarchs, only to be defeated by Russian, Prussian and Austrian absolutism (alias ‘the Partitioning Powers’) in 1772, 1793 and 1795. The structure and outward forms of ‘absolutism’ were even more strongly shaped by the requirements of war in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century eastern Europe than they had been in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century western Europe. The eastern European nobilities were to a large extent service nobilities and they regularly wore uniform to emphasize that they represented the strong arm of the state.
A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change (1998) by Robert Bideleux