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How many aretwo mutational steps away? The value of G after one round of random mating andmutation, as a function of its current value, is [&+ - &) G] . 1 only by the factor (1 - u ) ~ on the right side. This factor is the probability that a mutation did not occur in either of the two alleles chosen at random from the population in the “prime” generation. 7 may be manipulated to obtain an approximation for A%. The approximation is based on the fact that mutation rates are small (often to depending on the context)andpopulation sizes are large (often much larger than lo4).

6: The time course for X in two populations. 875. 875 individuals. 12) On the left side is 7-l of an idealized population of actual size Ne and on the right side is 7-l for the population complicated by population size fluctuations. for N e . 12 may be solvedby using the techniques of Appendix A for approximating the product of terms that are close to one. 3. 4. 5 Effective population size 37 which is our final expression for the effective size of the population. You might recognize the formula for Ne as being the harmonic mean population size.

In fact, the apparent constancy of evolutionary rates of proteins has long been used to argue that most evolution at the molecular level is due to drift and mutation alone. The neutral theory is concerned with this hypothesis. Neutral evolution has been called non-Darwinian evolution because most substitutions are due to genetic drift rather than natural selection. However, the theory is not in conflict with Darwin’s theory; rather, it simply claims that most substitutions have no influence on the survival of genotypes.

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64 Sentai

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